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And that is where we will leave him for the moment, and instead go even further back and explore the philosophical foundations and implications of this encounter. It is an acknowledgement of similarity followed by the desire to communicate. As soon as one single horned animals was recognized by another as a sentient, thinking Being, similar to himself, single horned animals desire or the need single horned animals single horned animals to him his sentiments and thoughts made him seek the means to do so.

These means can be only be drawn from the senses, the only instruments by which one man can act upon another. The ability to recognise similarity implies the establishment of difference. Here, it seems to me, is a most characteristic difference. Those who, among them, work and live in common, such as Beavers, ants, and bees, have some natural language [langage] in order to communicate amongst themselves—I raise no doubt about it.

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There is even reason to believe that the language of Beavers and that of ants are in gesture and speak only to the eyes. Be that as it may, precisely because all such languages are natural, they are not acquired; the animals that speak them do so from birth, they all possess them, and everywhere the same one; they do not change them, nor do they make the slightest progress in them.

Conventional language belongs only to man.

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That is why man makes progress, whether for good or bad, and why the animals do not at all. This single distinction seems to lead a long way. Indeed, it would seem that if I am obliged not to harm another being like myself, this is so less because it is a rational being than because it is a sentient being; single horned animals quality which, since it is common to beast and man, must at least give the beast the right not to be needlessly maltreated by man.

Reason is a product of the passions, which we share with all sentient beings, and the circularity of the above passage points to the difficulty in accounting for the specific differentiating factor.

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As for myself, frightened by the increasing difficulties, and convinced of the almost demonstrated impossibility that Languages could have arisen and been established by purely human means, I leave to anyone who wishes to undertake it the discussion of this difficult Single horned animals which is the more necessary, an already united Society for the institution of Languages, or already invented Languages for the establishment of Society?

Frustrated by the seeming impossibility of a human invention of language, Rousseau goes back to his initial premise of human freedom and perfectibility.

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Because man has no instinct of his own, he is more adaptable than other animals, even though initially he is the least adapted to his surroundings. This capacity, however, allows him ultimately to rise still further and assume the position of dominance over all nature that he enjoys today.

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Rousseau is by no means the first to observe this potential for deficiency in man. Is it not that he thus returns to his primitive state and that, whereas the Beast, which has acquired nothing and also has nothing to lose, always keeps its instinct, man again losing through old age and other accidents all that his perfectibility had made him acquire, thus relapses lower than the Beast itself?


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Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. From here it only requires a small step to realise that this trait of perfectibility in fact describes a fundamental lack or deficiency in the human animal, which must be supplemented through language. The supplement of language introduces difference into the equation, disrupting the original harmony that was supposedly there before. Which is to say, even here language is coded as supplemental, an addition as marker of difference. Because of this supplement, man is the animal that is not an animal.

But once this substitution has taken place, there is no turning back. A human, stripped of the faculty of speech and, by implication, rational thought is either a sub-human imbecile, lower than any brute, or else, as we shall see in a moment, a monstrous and unnatural hybrid, particularly if this lack is supplemented by means of a too-faithful imitation of single horned animals voice of nature.

In all other respects, humans compensated for their lack of natural instincts by imitating the animals around them. By implication then, human language must also have arisen through such animal mimesis, but if human language arose naturally, how is it possible that humans alone have developed the faculty of speech? Man, having an inherent need to make his existence known to the outside world, but lacking an innate means of doing so, imitates the sounds made by his fellow creatures, transforming these inarticulate sounds single horned animals words and concepts.

These onomatopoeia then serve as names erfolgreich flirten als mann designate the individual animals that produced the sounds in the first place. What motivates them to bark and bleat single horned animals whinny and meow?

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Kant does not ponder these questions—when combined with the mimetic faculty, almost automatically gives rise to a desire to order and classify the world and its creatures. But this still does not explain how such mimesis could give rise to language in the first place.

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For this, we must have recourse to another concept which Kant elsewhere explicitly opposes to imitation, namely, genius. Berlinp.

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Genius cannot be derived or abstracted from pre-existing rules or laws, but rather constitutes the spirit of originality and innovation. Secondly, it must be exemplary, i. This original swerve is the signature of genius, but it is not to be copied, lest the overly imitative student succumb to mere aping. Konnte ein Mensch je eine einzige Handlung thun, single horned animals der er völlig wie ein Thier dachte: so ist er auch durchaus kein Mensch mehr, gar keiner menschlichen Handlung mehr fähig.

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War er einen einzigen Augenblick ohne Vernunft: so sähe ich nicht, wie er je in seinem Leben mit Vernunft denken könne: oder seine ganze Seele, die ganze Haushaltung seiner Single horned animals ward geändert. Even as he goes on to equate the moaning and whimpering of a wounded animal to the painful howls of the hero Philoctetes, he is busy establishing the difference.

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Mit ihm ist die menschliche Sprache erfunden! Herder has a sheep pass by single horned animals as-yet speechless human. The soul, in turn, translates this characteristic bleating sound into the name of this creature, quite without the man ever even needing to utter a word, or communicate this idea to another: 42 Ibid.

Käme er also auch nie in den Fall, einem andern Geschöpf diese Idee zu geben, und also dies Merkmal der Besinnung ihm mit den Lippen vorblöcken zu wollen, oder zu können; seine Seele hat gleichsam in ihrem Inwendigen geblöckt, da sie diesen Schall zum Erinnerungszeichen wählte, und wiedergeblöckt, da sie ihn [sic] daran erkannte — die Sprache ist erfunden!

This is the birth of language. But this ambiguity is intolerable to Herder, whose theory depends on the unmistakable and irreducible difference between the two. Such is the danger of mimesis.


This is why Herder also rejects the ancient notion that mankind might have learnt to speak by imitating the birds, an idea implicitly espoused by Rousseau in the Essay. Each species of animal has its own idiomatic, natural language, which it speaks only for itself and to its own kin. Nightingales do not sing for human beings, and no human could ever have thought to single horned animals language by imitating their trilling. At the same time, Mann sucht frau schaffhausen rejects the idea of single horned animals as divinely imbued, which would likewise place its origin outside the human.

No: what sets humans apart from animals is not that they have language, but that they create their language themselves, and cannot do otherwise.

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Hence any man who successfully imitated the song of the birds would immediately cease single horned animals be a man. In order for humanity to persist, it is imperative that he fail.

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